Annual household income was explored and categorized as $60 000

Annual household income was explored and categorized as $60 000

Most other covariates noticed provided each day supplement D and you can multivitamin enhance play with, annual dentist visit (yearly or not), tooth-grooming volume (twice daily or not), flossing frequency, ages and you will sex.

Data were accessed and analyzed at the Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Manitoba using SPSS 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY), SAS 9.2 (SAS, Cary, NC), and Stata 13 MP (StataCorp LP, College Station, Tex.). As per RDC restrictions, original sample sizes were suppressed. Bootstrap weights for variance estimation and weighted results are presented with degrees of freedom fixed to 11. Descriptive statistics include means and frequencies with 95% confidence intervals (CI). ? 2 tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each categorical independent variable with GI and LOA. Student t tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each continuous independent variable with GI and LOA. Three multiple logistic regression models for GI and for LOA were developed to determine the adjusted association between 25(OH)D levels and GI and LOA, controlling for potential confounders. Model A used 25(OH)D concentration of < 50 nmol/L, model B used 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L, and model C used mean 25(OH)D concentration. Variables with a p value of ? 0.075 were included in the multiple logistic regression analysis for GI and LOA, with the exception of plasma vitamin D concentration and known risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking. A p value ? 0.05 was significant.


The mean 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI) in the GI and LOA samples were 90.8 (77.5–104.2) and 85.6 (74.6–97.2) nmol/L, respectively. Although mean 25(OH)D levels were above the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency, 63% of each sample had concentrations below the 75 nmol/L threshold and 25% of each population had 25(OH)D levels < 50 nmol/L.

Yet not, whenever confounding variables was managed to possess, numerous logistic regression data out of GI (Desk dos) indicated that merely plaque and you may intercourse was in fact notably on the GI

Bivariate analysis of GI (Table 1) [Ed. Note: All Tables in this article are available in the PDF version]. showed that several variables were significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations below the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency. Participants with 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/L and < 75 nmol/L had significantly increased odds of having more GI (odds ratio (OR) 1.63 and 1.44, respectively). Those taking vitamin D supplements had significantly lower odds for GI (OR 0.56), while those with diabetes had increased odds of having moderate to severe GI (OR 1.33). Mean BMI was significantly higher among those with the worst GI. Meanwhile, those who reported frequenting a dental professional ? 1 time a year, brushing their teeth twice daily and flossing daily had significantly lower odds for GI. Increased scores for plaque were associated with increased odds for moderate to severe GI. Males had increased odds for GI compared with females, while those in higher-income categories had lower odds for GI than those in lower-income categories.

Girls got all the way down probability of moderate so you can serious GI, when you find yourself high philosophy into the plaque list improved the chances from modest so you can significant GI. Zero extreme relatives ranging from 25(OH)D and you will GI was observed in models Good, B otherwise C from the several logistic regression study off GI.

Numerous details had been extreme regarding bivariate studies of LOA (Table step 3). Believe it or not, bringing a multivitamin otherwise a supplement D enhance try associated with increased probability of much more serious LOA. Large imply HbA1c philosophy have been for the increased likelihood of even more major LOA once the is HbA1c > 7%. Older age is in the improved probability of more severe LOA, when you find yourself a full time income of > $sixty 000 is in the down probability of more serious LOA. No significant relationship is actually receive ranging from twenty five(OH)D accounts and you will LOA regarding the bivariate study.

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